• Users Online: 1121
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 195-201

Eight-hour versus 24-h whole-blood hold before preparation of platelet concentrates by the platelet-rich plasma method


1 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Adult Hematology/Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Date of Submission14-Nov-2014
Date of Acceptance21-Nov-2014
Date of Web Publication25-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Ghada M El-Gohary
King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, MBC 64
Egypt
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1110-1067.153944

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background Platelet concentrates (PCs) can be prepared by immediate processing of fresh whole blood (WB); alternatively, they can be prepared from WB stored overnight at room temperature. For blood centers, extension of WB storage time from 8 to 24 h would very useful because of significant operational and logistical benefits. This work was carried out to assess the quality of PCs prepared from WB that had been held overnight at ambient temperature compared with that of PCs prepared from fresh WB donations over a 5-day storage period.
Study design and methods Thirty units of WB were collected; 15 U were kept at room temperature for 6-8 h before platelet preparation (fresh group) and 15 U were kept in a controlled environment of 20-24°C for 22-24 h before platelet preparation (overnight group).
Results PCs prepared after an 8-h or a 24-h hold were comparable in platelet count per PC. CD62P expression and pH values were significantly lower in PCs prepared from 24-h hold donations.
Conclusion The quality of PC may in fact improve because of the ambient overnight hold period as evidenced by lower CD62P expression throughout the storage period, which indicates a lower level of platelet activation. The lower pH values detected in overnight PCs remained within the international acceptable range. Egyptian J Haematol 39:-0 © 2014 The Egyptian Society of Haematology.

Keywords: CD62P, platelet concentrates, transfusion


How to cite this article:
El-Danasoury AS, El-Mogy MI, Farouk A, Neseem GS, El-Gohary GM. Eight-hour versus 24-h whole-blood hold before preparation of platelet concentrates by the platelet-rich plasma method. Egypt J Haematol 2014;39:195-201

How to cite this URL:
El-Danasoury AS, El-Mogy MI, Farouk A, Neseem GS, El-Gohary GM. Eight-hour versus 24-h whole-blood hold before preparation of platelet concentrates by the platelet-rich plasma method. Egypt J Haematol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Nov 13];39:195-201. Available from: http://www.ehj.eg.net/text.asp?2014/39/4/195/153944


  Introduction Top


Platelets are an indispensable component for maintenance of vascular integrity, and thrombocytopenia can lead to bleeding symptoms ranging from petechiae and simple bruising to intracranial hemorrhage and death [1]. The use of platelet transfusion has increased steadily to become an essential part of the treatment of cancer, hematological malignancies, marrow failure, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [2]. For many years, the approach has been to produce platelet concentrate (PC) on the day of whole blood (WB) collection, with any unprocessed blood refrigerated overnight before processing into packed red blood cells (RBCs) alone [3]. This processing method requires careful planning to ensure that adequate stocks of all component types are maintained [4].

Without doubt, both the deferral of female donors and the use of fresh PCs have marked effects on platelet availability [5].

Moreover, the demand for platelet transfusions continues to exceed supply in most countries, complicating the situation. Complementary approaches are needed to meet this demand [6].

Efforts are being made to lengthen the storage period of WB before component preparation to increase supplies. Longer storage of WB enables flexibility in practice, ensuring safer components for patients [7].

However, evaluation of the effects of the overnight hold of WB on the prepared PCs and how these effects might contribute toward the platelet storage lesion affecting the quality of the PCs at the end of the storage period is crucial.

The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of extended hold of WB at room temperature - before processing - on PCs processed using the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) method. PCs were evaluated over a 5-day storage period.


  Materials and methods Top


WB was collected from healthy donors subjected to a simple assessment of history and clinical examination according to Egyptian standards for blood banks and transfusion services [8]. WB was collected using a triple blood bag system (JMS Singapore PTE LTD, Singapore Thermo Scientific Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA). A total of 450 ml of blood was drawn into the primary bag containing 63 ml of a citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 anticoagulant preservative. The collection process was not to exceed 10 min to avoid the possibility of platelet activation. A blood collection monitor was used, which impedes further blood flow once the desired amount (450 ml) has been drawn and agitates blood during collection to ensure adequate mixing with the anticoagulant-preservative mixture in the bag.

Thirty units of WB were collected; 15 U were kept at room temperature for 6-8 h before platelet preparation (fresh group) and 15 U were kept in a controlled environment of 20-24°C for 22-24 h before platelet preparation (overnight group). The controlled environment was an air-conditioned room, with the temperature maintained between 20 and 24°C.

After storage, WB bags were processed into packed RBC units, PCs, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) according to the PRP method using a cooling centrifuge (Sorvall RC12BP; Thermo Scientific Inc.). The time and speed used for PC preparation were set after centrifuge calibration. The WB bags were turned upside down several times to mix the contents before centrifugation. PRP-PC was prepared using a standard two-centrifugation method: a soft spin, followed by a hard spin. In the soft spin, PRP was separated from WB by light spin centrifugation of WB units at 1800g for 2 min 30 s, with centrifuge brakes off and using the slow stop option with a deceleration curve of 5. PRP was transferred immediately into the empty PC bag using a manual extractor. The separation was not delayed to prevent variable further sedimentation of the cells. Then, in the hard spin, platelets were concentrated from PRP by heavy spin centrifugation at 5100g for 5 min and platelet-poor plasma was expressed into the FFP bag, except for 60 ml, which was retained with the platelet pellet. PC bags were left undisturbed with the label side down for a time period of 60-120 min, and then gently resuspended manually before being placed on a platelet agitator and kept under continuous horizontal agitation for storage. All centrifugation and storage steps were carried out at 20-24°C.

PCs were maintained at 20-24°C under continuous horizontal agitation for 5 days. Two-milliliter samples of well-mixed PC were drawn aseptically at days 1, 3, and 5.

Platelet count was performed using an automated cell counter SYSMEX KX-21N (Kobe, Japan Hanna Instruments, Woonsocket, USA). Platelet count per PC was calculated by multiplying the platelet count per ml by PC volume, which was determined by dividing the net PC weight by the specific density of PC (1.03 g/ml) [9,10]. Platelet count was determined on day 1. Measurement of pH in PC was performed using a pH meter (Hanna Bench pH 211 Meter) immediately after sampling. pH measurement was performed on days 1, 3, and 5.

Platelet activation was measured by determining CD62P expression on days 1, 3, and 5 using a flow cytometer (Epics XL; Beckman Coulter). Platelets were diluted to 50 × 10≤/ml using Isoton II, Beckman Coulter, as a diluent. Using plastic disposable tubes, two test tubes were used for each sample: a control tube and the test tube. Into each tube, 10 ml of the diluted platelets were added, to yield a final platelet count of 500 × 10≤ per tube. To the control tube, 5 ml of the PE-conjugated isotypic antibody control and 5 ml of the FITC-conjugated isotypic antibody control were added (clone 679.1Mc7; Beckman Coulter) (IgG1 isotype). To the test tube, 5 ml of CD62P - PE conjugated antibody (clone CLB-Thromb/6; Beckman Coulter) (IgG1 isotype) and 5 ml of CD61 - FITC of conjugated antibody (clone SZ21; Beckman Coulter) (IgG1 isotype) were added (labeling with anti-CD61 was used for precise identification of platelets). Mixing was performed by gentle drawing of the mixture up and down in the pipette tip. Tubes were incubated in the dark at room temperature for exactly 20 min. Then, 1 ml of PBS was added to each tube and mixed gently just before measurement. For each tube, a total of 10 000 platelet events were acquired on the flow cytometer. The isotypic control tube was run first to detect nonspecific labeling and to set the threshold for positivity. A gate was set on an intact platelet population defined by characteristic forward and side scatter. Out of the gated cells, the cells positive for CD61 and CD62P represent the activated platelets.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the SPSS 16 software package under the Windows Vista operating system (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA). Continuous data parameters were analyzed for normality using the Shapiro - Wilk test; a parametric distribution of data was assumed and data were presented in the form of mean ± SD and range. A comparative study was carried out using the Student t-test for comparison of two independent samples and a paired t-test for comparison of paired-samples data sets. P value was used to determine 'statistical significance'. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant and a P value less than 0.01 was considered as highly significant.

Graphical presentation of data was performed using EXCEL 2007 software under the Windows Vista operating system (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA).


  Results Top


As shown in [Table 1] and [Figure 1], the mean platelet count measured at day 1 in fresh PCs was 6.09 ± 0.77 × 10 10 /PC, whereas in the overnight PCs, it was 5.73 ± 0.49 × 10 10 /PC. Comparison of these values indicated that they were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the mean values of CD62P expression in overnight PCs measured at days 1, 3, and 5 were significantly lower than those of fresh PCs at all days (P < 0.05). The mean pH values of overnight PCs measured at days 1, 3, and 5 were significantly lower than those of fresh PCs on all days (P < 0.001). However, the pH in overnight PCs remained within the required range of 6.4-7.4.
Figure 1: Comparison of the mean CD62P and pH values of fresh and overnight platelet concentrates (PCs). (a) Mean CD62P values in fresh and overnight PCs. (b) Mean pH values in fresh and overnight PCs. (-♦-) PC prepared from whole blood (WB) units held for 8 h; (-■-) PCs prepared from 24-h held WB. *Significant differences (P < 0.05) between the 8-h and 24-h conditions.

Click here to view


Comparison of CD62P expression during the storage period in fresh PCs showed a significant increase during storage (P < 0.001). Although in overnight PCs, the increase in CD62P expression from day 1 to day 3 was not statistically significant (P>0.05), it gained significance from day 3 to day 5 (P < 0.05) [Table 2] and [Table 3].
Table 1: Comparison between fresh platelet concentrates and overnight platelet concentrates in day 1 mean platelet count and mean CD62P and pH values throughout the storage period

Click here to view
Table 2: Paired comparison of CD62P and pH values throughout the storage period in fresh platelet concentrates

Click here to view
Table 3 Paired comparison of CD62P and pH values throughout the storage period in overnight platelet concentrates

Click here to view


It is worth noting that, in the present study, all the values of CD62P expression remained below 50% throughout the 5-day storage period for both groups (except for the fifth-day values in 5 U of the fresh group and 2 U of the overnight group). This observation indicates that CD62P expression values below 50% correspond to good in-vivo viability of the transfused platelets [11].

Comparison of the pH values of each group on different days of storage versus each other showed a significant decrease in the pH during storage (P < 0.05) both in fresh and in overnight PCs [Table 2] and [Table 3].

All the overnight and fresh PCs fulfilled the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) standard requiring end-of-storage pH to be 6.2 or greater [12] and the Canadian Standards Association requirement of pH greater than 6.2 [13].

Throughout storage, the pH of both fresh and overnight PCs was above the UK specifications of pH greater than 6.4 [14] and within the range of 6.4-7.4 recommended by the Council of Europe guidelines [13] [except for one reading on day 1 in 1 U in the fresh PC group (7.43)].

Moreover, all the PCs had pH above 6.8, a value below which platelets begin to undergo some deleterious effects [15].


  Discussion Top


PC preparation and storage are associated with several changes in platelets that result in a reduction in their recovery and survival after transfusion. These changes are known as platelet storage lesions. Concerns were raised that prolonged storage of WB at room temperature before PC preparation might add to the platelet storage lesion, affecting the quality of PCs.

In this study, we assessed the quality of PCs prepared from WB that had been held overnight at ambient temperature compared with that of PCs prepared from fresh WB donations over a 5-day storage period.

In the present study, we chose three in-vitro parameters to evaluate the impact that the extended WB hold had on the PCs prepared and to assess their quality and stability over the storage period, comparing the results against international specifications for the quality of PCs.

The first of these parameters was the platelet count per PC as the primary objective of platelet transfusion is to provide sufficient amount of platelets with adequate in-vivo viability [16].

In the present study, the mean platelet count measured at day 1 in fresh PCs was 6.09 × 10 10 /PC, ranging from a minimum of 5.2×10 10 /PC to a maximum of 7.8 × 10 10 /PC, whereas in overnight PCs, it was 5.73 × 10 10 /PC, ranging from a minimum of 5.2 × 10 10 /PC to a maximum of 7.3 × 10 10 /PC, the difference being statistically insignificant (P > 0.05), indicating that the overnight storage of WB at room temperature before processing by the PRP method did not affect the platelet count in the PCs prepared, which is consistent with the studies of Thibault et al. [9], in which the platelet count for fresh PCs was 6.4 ± 1.2 × 10 10 /PC versus 6.2 ± 1.0 × 10 10 /PC for overnight PCs, and Moroff et al. [17], in which the platelet count for fresh PCs was 6.8 ± 1.9 × 10 10 /PC versus 7.1 ± 2.5 × 10 10 /PC for overnight PCs.

In our study, 93.3% of fresh PCs had at least 5.5 × 10Ή°/PC and 86.6% of overnight PCs had at least 5.5 × 10Ή°/PC. From this perspective, both groups fulfilled the requirement of the Canadian Standards Association (≥75% of units should have ≥5.5×10Ή°/PC) [18].

Both groups did not fulfill the Council of Europe guidelines (≥75% of units should have ≥6.0 × 10Ή°/PC) [13]; only 40% of fresh PCs had at least 6.0 × 10Ή°/PC and 6.6% of overnight PCs had at least 6.0 × 10Ή°/PC.

The second parameter chosen was surface expression of CD62P as a marker of platelet activation during storage of PCs [19],[20],[21]. Platelets are activated during the collection procedure, processing, and storage. Their activation is associated with considerable morphological changes. Among these, the degranulation of the granular structures of platelets with subsequent translocation of the formerly intracellularly localized molecules to the surface of platelets is a hallmark of this process. The best example is the P-selectin molecule (CD62P), which is stored in a-granules of resting platelets. The translocation and membrane expression of this molecule occur very early during platelet activation [22].

The appearance of CD62P on the platelet membrane surface is one of the parameters that indicate a decrease in the quality of platelets during storage [23].

As for CD62P expression on day 1, the mean values in fresh PCs measured at days 1, 3, and 5 were 37.29 ± 4.74, 40.18 ± 5.58, and 45.87 ± 5.92%, respectively. The corresponding values for overnight PCs were 27.90 ± 11.84, 28.65 ± 10.15, and 35.53 ± 11.03%, respectively. The values of overnight PCs were significantly lower at all days (P < 0.05).

Comparison of CD62P expression over the storage period in fresh PCs showed a significant increase during storage (P < 0.001). Although in overnight PCs, the increase in CD62P expression from day 1 to day 3 was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), it gained significance from day 3 to day 5 and consequently from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.05).

In agreement with our results, lower levels of platelet activation in overnight PCs throughout the storage period were reported in studies by Thomas et al. [11] and Dijkstra-Tiekstra et al. [24], who monitored the prepared PCs for 7 days and measured CD62P expression on days 1, 5, and 7.

It is worth noting that, in the present study, all the values of CD62P expression remained below 50% throughout the 5-day storage period for both groups, except for the fifth-day values in 5 U of the fresh group and 2 U of the overnight group. This observation indicates that CD62P expression values below 50% correspond to good in-vivo viability of the transfused platelets [11].

To identify the day on which changes become significant for PCs in each group, we compared values at consecutive time points. For fresh PCs, the difference was significant between day 1 and day 3 and between day 3 and day 5, whereas the values of overnight PCs were significantly increased only on comparing day 5 with day 3.

These results indicate that in fresh PCs, CD62P expression increases significantly throughout the entire storage period, whereas in overnight PCs, the increase in CD62P expression becomes significant only after day 3, meaning more stable and less activated platelets in the first 3 days of storage, during which they will mostly be used. The late increase in CD62P expression on day 5 is of minor significance.

The third parameter was pH. The choice of pH as a study measure was made on the basis of the fact that pH has been correlated with in-vivo platelet recovery [23],[25],[26]. Also, bacterial contamination can alter the pH of stored PCs [27].

The mean pH values in fresh PCs measured at days 1, 3, and 5 were 7.34 ± 0.05, 7.29 ± 0.05, and 7.24 ± 0.07, respectively. The corresponding values in overnight PCs were 7.27 ± 0.04, 7.20 ± 0.05, and 7.14 ± 0.06, respectively. Comparison of these values showed that they were significantly lower for overnight PCs on all days (P < 0.001). However, the pH in overnight PCs remained between the required range of 6.4 and 7.4.

Comparison of the pH values of each group on different days of storage versus each other showed a significant decrease in the pH during storage (P < 0.05) both in fresh and in overnight PCs.

Throughout storage, the pH of both fresh and overnight PCs was above the UK specifications of pH more than 6.4 [14] and within the range of 6.4-7.4 recommended by the Council of Europe guidelines [13], except for one reading on day 1 in 1 U in the fresh PC group (7.43).

All the overnight and fresh PCs fulfilled the AABB standard requiring end-of-storage pH to be 6.2 or greater [12] and the Canadian Standards Association requirement of pH more than 6.2 [18].

Moreover, all the PCs had pH above 6.8, a value below which platelets begin to undergo some deleterious effects [15].

pH values in overnight PCs, although lower than the corresponding values in fresh PCs, were still acceptable. These results are in agreement with the results reported by other studies by Sandgren et al. [28] and Dijkstra-Tiekstra et al. [24].

The fact that overnight room temperature hold results in a lower pH can be attributed to the buildup of lactic acid produced by the metabolism of RBCs, platelets, and white blood cells (WBCs) in the stored WB [29].

Monitoring of pH values throughout the storage period in each group showed a significant decrease in pH. This finding is rather expected; because of storage at 24°C, the ongoing platelet metabolism can reduce the pH of PCs [30].

The finding that, in the present study, the three parameters measured were not compromised by overnight storage of WB before processing to PCs further supports the growing interest of blood banks to lengthen the current WB storage period from 8 to 24 h [31]. This potentially has several operational advantages: first, the production of PC after overnight hold of WB markedly increases operational flexibility and logistics are easier when WB can be processed during the daytime, making night shifts unnecessary as (a) all WB blood units are available the following morning, enabling very efficient routine production by avoiding periods of waiting for WB to be supplied from different blood collection sites; (b) the staff for blood component preparation are basically needed only during routine working hours and the workload can be distributed evenly over time, which can indirectly lead to improvements in component quality and safety [32].

Second, a large percent of the blood supply is collected on mobile blood drives, often distant from blood component production laboratories. The standard processing of components required within 8 h often leaves only the RBCs and 24-h frozen plasma as products from such mobile collections. The 'overnight-hold method' solves the logistic problems associated with collection by distant mobile teams and donations collected in the evenings and enable the preparation of platelets from almost all blood donations [33].

In addition to the operational advantage, the hold time may allow reversal of some low-level activation of platelets caused by the donation procedure [34]. Moreover, as WBCs in WB can ingest bacteria during the storage period [35], the risk of bacterial contamination is lower when WBCs are removed after 16-20 h [36],[37]. In fact, in a study that was designated to evaluate the effect of the overnight-hold method on the growth of bacteria in experimentally contaminated blood units, overnight PCs showed delayed bacterial growth on the second and fifth days of storage [38].


  Conclusion Top


The platelet quality parameters measured in our study indicate that overnight storage of WB at room temperature before preparing PCs by the PRP method did not compromise the quality of the PCs produced.

The preserved quality of overnight PCs, besides the efficient production center operational issues such as working during business hours only and fewer wastage of potential PCs sources such as the WB units from mobile centers or late shifts, and aiding in choosing male only WB for PCs production, might all be important - even encouraging - reasons to shift to overnight hold of WB before the preparation of PCs.


  Acknowledgements Top


The authors are appreciating the great effort made in reviewing the work which is an original manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Hod E, Schwartz J. Platelet transfusion refractoriness. Br J Haematol 2008; 142:348-360.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Stroncek DF, Rebulla P. Platelet transfusions. Lancet 2007; 370:427-438.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Cardigan R, Lawrie AS, Mackie IJ, Williamson LM. The quality of fresh-frozen plasma produced from whole blood stored at 4 degrees C overnight. Transfusion 2005; 45:1342-1348.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
European Guidelines. Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components. 14th ed.. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Vlaar AP, Schultz MJ, Juffermans NP. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a change of perspective. Neth J Med 2009; 67:320-327.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kaufman RM. Platelets: testing, dosing and the storage lesion - recent advances. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2006; 492-496.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Naghadeh HT, Roudkenar MH. A study of the quantity of some stable and labile coagulation factors in fresh-frozen plasma produced from whole blood stored for 24 hours in Iran. Blood Transfus 2009; 7:39-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Egyptian National Blood Transfusion Standards. Section X: safety, health & environment. 1st ed. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health and Population; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Thibault L, Beauséjour A, de Grandmont MJ, Lemieux R, Leblanc JF. Characterization of blood components prepared from whole-blood donations after a 24-hour hold with the platelet-rich plasma method. Transfusion 2006; 46:1292-1299.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Singh RP, Marwaha N, Malhotra P, Dash S. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC) and apheresis-PC methods. Asian J Transfus Sci 2009; 3:86-94.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Thomas S, Beard M, Garwood M, Callaert M, Cardigan R. Platelet concentrates produced from whole blood using the Atreus processing system. Vox Sang 2009; 97:93-101.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Standards for blood banks and transfusion services. 25th ed. Bethesda, MD: American Association of Blood Banks; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Council of Europe. Guide to the preparation, use and quality control of blood components. 13th ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Guidelines for the blood transfusion services in the United Kingdom. 7th ed. London: The Stationery Office; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Vassallo RR, Wagner SJ, Einarson M, Nixon J, Ziegler D, Moroff G. Maintenance of in vitro properties of leukoreduced whole blood-derived pooled platelets after a 24-hour interruption of agitation. Transfusion 2009; 49:2131-2135.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Ostrowski SR, Bochsen L, Salado-Jimena JA, Ullum H, Reynaerts I, Goodrich RP, Johansson PI. In vitro cell quality of buffy coat platelets in additive solution treated with pathogen reduction technology. Transfusion 2010; 50:2210-2219.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Moroff G, AuBuchon JP, Pickard C, Whitley PH, Heaton WA, Holme S. Evaluation of the properties of components prepared and stored after holding of whole blood units for 8 and 24 hours at ambient temperature. Transfusion 2011; 51: Suppl 1:7S-14S.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Levin E, Culibrk B, Gyöngyössy-Issa MI, Weiss S, Scammell K, LeFresne W, et al. Implementation of buffy coat platelet component production: comparison to platelet-rich plasma platelet production. Transfusion 2008; 48: 2331-2337.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Diedrich B. Storage and transfusion of platelets: in vitro and in vivo studies in healthy volunteers and in allogenic hematopoeitic progenitor cell transplant recipients. Stockholm, Sweden: The Division of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine at the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Reikvam H, Marschner S, Apelseth TO, Goodrich R, Hervig T. The Mirasol® Pathogen Reduction Technology system and quality of platelets stored in platelet additive solution. Blood Transfusion 2010; 8:186-192.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Picker SM. In-vitro assessment of platelet function. Transfus Apher Sci 2011; 44:305-319.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Procházková R, Andrys C, Hubácková L, Krejsek J. Markers of platelet activation and apoptosis in platelet concentrates collected by apheresis. Transfus Apher Sci 2007; 37:115-123.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Shrivastava M. The platelet storage lesion. Transfus Apher Sci 2009; 41:105-113.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Dijkstra-Tiekstra MJ, van der Meer PF, Cardigan R, Devine D, Prowse C, Sandgren P, de Wildt-Eggen J, Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion Collaborative. Platelet concentrates from fresh or overnight-stored blood, an international study. Transfusion 2011; 51: Suppl 1:38S-44S.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Wagner SJ, Myrup A, Awatefe H, Thompson-Montgomery D, Hirayama J, Skripchenko A. Maintenance of platelet in vitro properties during 7-day storage in M-sol with a 30-hour interruption of agitation. Transfusion 2008; 48:2501-2607.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Wagner SJ, Skripchenko A, Seetharaman S, Myrup A, Kurtz J, Thomas-Montgomery D, et al. Influence of apheresis container size on the maintenance of platelet in vitro storage properties after a 30-h interruption of agitation. Transfus Apher Sci 2010; 43:9-15.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Barker LM, Nanassy OZ, Reed MW, Geelhood SJ, Pfalzgraf RD, Cangelosi GA, De Korte D. Multiple pH measurement during storage may detect bacterially contaminated platelet concentrates. Transfusion 2010; 50:2731-2737.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Sandgren P, Callaert M, Shanwell A, Gulliksson H. Storage of platelet concentrates from pooled buffy coats made of fresh and overnight-stored whole blood processed on the novel Atreus 2C+ system: in vitro study. Transfusion 2008; 48:688-696.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
van der Meer PF, Cancelas JA, Vassallo RR, Rugg N, Einarson M, Hess JR , BEST Collaborative. Evaluation of the overnight hold of whole blood at room temperature, before component processing: platelets (PLTs) from PLT-rich plasma. Transfusion 2011; 51(Suppl 1):45S-49S.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Reed MW, Geelhood S, Barker LM, Pfalzgraf R, Vlaar R, Gouwerok E, et al. Noninvasive measurement of pH in platelet concentrates with a fiber optic fluorescence detector. Transfusion 2009; 49:1233-1241.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Thibault L, Beauséjour A, Jacques A, de Grandmont MJ, Lemieux R, Grégoire Y, et al. Improved leukoreduction of red blood cell units prepared after a 24-h hold with the platelet rich plasma method using newly developed filters. Vox Sanguinis 2008; 94:286-291.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Gulliksson H, van der Meer PF. Storage of whole blood overnight in different blood bags preceding preparation of blood components: in vitro effects on red blood cells. Blood Transfus 2009; 7:210-215.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Hughes JD, Macdonald VW, Hess JR. Warm storage of whole blood for 72 hours. Transfusion 2007; 47:2050-2056.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Thomas S. Ambient overnight hold of whole blood prior to the manufacture of blood components. Transfus Med 2010; 20:361-368.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Devine DV, Serrano K. Preparation of blood products for transfusion: is there a best method? Biologicals 2012; 40:187-190.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
van der Meer PF, de Wildt-Eggen J. The effect of whole-blood storage time on the number of white cells and platelets in whole blood and in white cell-reduced red cells. Transfusion 2006; 46:589-594.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Hess JR. The overnight warm hold of whole blood before processing into blood components. Transfusion 2011; 51:Suppl 1:1S-2S.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Sanz C, Pereira A, Vila J, Faundez AI, Gomez J, Ordinas A. Growth of bacteria in platelet concentrates obtained from whole blood stored for 16 hours at 22 degrees C before component preparation. Transfusion 1997; 37:251-254.  Back to cited text no. 38
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1688    
    Printed29    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded285    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]