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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 103-108

Evaluation of multiprobe fluoresence in-situ hybridization panel in the detection of common chromosomal abnormalities of acute myeloid leukemia

1 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2 Internal Medicine/Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Rania S Swelem
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21131
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ejh.ejh_50_17

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Background Numerous recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and their detection has become essential for accurate diagnosis, classification, and prognosis of the disease. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) provides a powerful technique complementary and even alternative to chromosome banding studies for the identification of selected chromosome aberrations. Aim Evaluation of the multiprobe FISH panel in the detection of common cytogenetic abnormalities in AML and to investigate their association with clinical diagnosis, chemotherapy, and prognosis. Patients and methods This study was conducted on 20 newly diagnosed AML patients. All patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including complete blood count, bone marrow aspiration, immunophenotyping, and interphase FISH using cytocell multiprobe AML/myelodysplastic syndrome panel designed to detect AML/Eight-twenty-one (ETO), Promyelocytic leukaemia- Retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARA), and core-binding factor beta/Myosin, heavy chain 11, smooth muscle (CBFβ/MYH11) translocations, mixed-lineage leukaemia (MLL) break apart, P53, 5q, 7q, and 20q deletions. Results Interphase FISH analysis showed 5q deletion in 8/20 (40%) cases, positive PML/RARA in 3/20 (15%) cases p53 deletion in 15/20 (75%) cases, positive AML1/ETO in 1/20 (5%) cases, no MLL break apart cases (0%), 7q deletion in 4/20 (20%) cases, positive CBFβ/MYH11 fusion gene in 4/20 (20%) cases, 20q deletion in 9/20 (45%) cases, and trisomy 8 in 7/20 (35%) cases. There was a statistically significant relationship between 5q deletion and prognosis (P=0.028). Conclusion Multiprobe FISH is more cost effective and time effective compared with traditional FISH. It is an efficient technique for the detection of cytogenetic aberrations AML, providing critical information for diagnosis and prognosis, and for monitoring the course of the disease.

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