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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 36-44

Phytochemical analysis, toxicity profile, and hemomodulatory properties of Annona muricata (Soursop)

1 Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
3 Department of Anatomy, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
4 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Kingsley C Agu
Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, 300001, Benin City
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1110-1067.206431

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Background A wide array of ethnomedicinal values have been attributed to the different parts of Annona muricata, and indigenous communities in Nigeria, Africa, and South America extensively use this plant to augment conventional drugs. Aim The beneficial effects of A. muricata on the hematological profile have also been widely reported and this research sought to validate these claims. Design Adult albino Wistar rats were used in this study. Methanolic extracts of the various parts of the plant were used, with which we determined the 50% lethal dose (LD50) and acute toxicity status of the plant before hematological studies for a duration of 28 days (subchronic studies). Materials and methods During the subchronic studies, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg of the fruit, leaf, stem-bark, and root-bark methanolic extracts were administered to groups 2–6, respectively, whereas group received 2 ml of distilled water and served as control. At the end of the administration period, the rats were killed and blood samples collected for onward hematological studies. Phytochemicals were quantified using standard procedures. Results The obtained results showed that both the leaf and fruit extracts had LD50 of 1918.33 mg/kg, whereas the stem-bark and root-bark both had LD50 above 5000 mg/kg. Subchronic observations were also made, including increased heart rates and diarrhea. The fruit and stem-bark extracts recorded a dose-dependent increase in CD4+ cells, especially from the 200 mg/kg dose. Also, the fruit, leaf, and root-bark extracts showed a dose-dependent increase in white blood cells and lymphocytes. The extracts of the various parts of the plant apart from the stem-bark recorded marked increase in platelet levels. The various extracts of the plant parts recorded striking increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume. These observations could be linked to the remarkable quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols present in the leaf and fruit fractions. Conclusion Thus, the obtained data suggest and validate the reported hemomodulatory and wound-healing properties of A. muricata, especially the fruit and leaf.

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